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And much more, not connected to smell.
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Süskind, P. Perfume, The Story of a Murderer. Translated by J. E. Woods. Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1986.
All References to Smell in the King James Bible. Assembled by Joseph Kaye.
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Crowther, Bosley. Screen: Olfactory Debut. 'Scent of Mystery' Opens at Warner. . New York Times, 19 February 1960. Section L+, pg23.
Dougill, D. Moses Pendleton's baseball ballet does not reach first base with David Dougill. Sunday Times, December 3, 1995. Lexis-Nexis.
English National Opera: Personal Email; Fax -- from Jane Livingston, Head of Press. Email: 1988-90. director was Richard Jones. The production was televised by BBC from Opera North and the BBC inserted Scratch and Sniff cards into copies of the Radio Times magazine. Fax: Extract from 'The Narrow-Smeller' , an extract from 'Earwitness' by Elias Canetta, trans. J. Neugroschel (Andre Deutsch, 1979); originally published as 'Der Ohrenzeuge: Funfzig Charakters', Carl Hanser Verlag,Munich.
Heilig, Morton Leonard. El Cine del Futuro: The Cinema of the Future. Presence Volume 1 Number 3, Summer 1992. Reprinted from Espacios 23-24, 1955. -- A view of an immersive cinema of the future.
Internet Movie Database. Behind the Great Wall. Available at http://us.imdb.com
Internet Movie Database. Polyester. Available at http://us.imdb.com
Internet Movie Database. Scent of Mystery. Available at http://us.imbd.com
Kehr, Dave.Brief Reviews: Polyester. Chicago Reader. Available at: http://onfilm.chicagereader.com/MovieCaps/P/PO/07225_POLYESTER.html
LaPenta, J. Fad-O-Rama. The Daily Yomiuri, January 31, 1993. Lexis-Nexis. -- Review of 'Arts & Entertainment Fads'
Lefcowitz, Eric. Retro Future: Smell-O-Vision: The Scent of a Movie. Available at http://retrofuture.web.aol.com/smell.html -- good history of it.
Lenderman, M. Something's Stinky as IFC salutes Waters. Available at: http://www.cableworld.com/Articles/News99/1999012511.htm Original documentary hails John Waters, irreverent creator of "Odorama".
Lightman, Herb A. This Movie Has Scents! American Cinematographer, February 1960, p92-93, 110. -- They like it.
Longino, B. A Century in The Arts. The Atlanta Journal And Constitution, December 5, 1999. Lexis-Nexis. -- lists that 1906 rose smell added to screening of rose bowl game.
Marks, L. Visible Evidence Conference workshops: Form and Facination. Available at: http://www.sfsu.edu/~visevcon/VisibleEvidenceConferenceVI.htm/Marks.htm
Nelken Information: Various internet sources
O'Mahony, M. 1978. Smell illusions and suggestion: reports contingent on tones played on television and radio. Chemical Senses and Flavor 3(2) 183-188. -- Reports of an experiment in which Granada Television, UK, reported to viewers that they would play a tone corresponding to a particularl smell and that viewers should call in if they smelt anything unusual; they were told it would be a non-manure country smell. A standard Dolby testing tone was played and a picture of an oscilloscope shown. Viewers were asked to write in if they smelt anything or, in particular, if they didn't smell anything. The next morning the explanation and tones were given again on a radio show. The same tones were played.
A total of 179 responses were received as being sent and clearly postmarked in the twenty-four hours following the show, with a further 37 sent later, out of an approximate viewing audience of three million - this is a high response rate in the industry. 114 individuals and a further 49 in groups (generally husband/wife) responded to the television and a further 43 responded to the radio. 37/179 reported 'hay', 27/179 reported 'grass'', and so on. 24/179 reported no smell. Of the radio group, 21/43 reported no smell.
This paper makes fascinating reading, mainly as to the powers of suggestion.
rumpus.net. The Rumpus Room: Polyester. Available at: http://www.rumpus.net/junk/odorama.html
Time Magazine. A Sock in the Nose. Review of Behind the Great Wall. 21 December 1959, p57.
artmuseum.net. Multimedia-From Wagner to Virtual Reality: Sensorama. Available at: http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Heilig.html
CCP Lectures: Sensorama. Available at: http://www.cinemedia.net/CCP/data2.htm -- reflects use of Sensorama as an icon for immersion technologies.
Heilig, Morton L. US Patent 2,955,156 Stereoscopic Television Apparatus for Individual Use. October 4, 1960. -- Wow. He invented a virtual reality head mounted display in 1959.
Heilig, Morton L. US Patent 3,050,870 Sensorama Stimulator. August 28, 1962. -- The big one. Virtual reality immersion, smells, the whole game.
Heilig, Morton L. Patent US3628829: Experience Theater. Issued 21 Dec 1971 / Filed 8 July 1969. Available at: http://www.patents.ibm.com -- "Odor implies a physical reality."
Heilig, Morton L. Patent US3469837: Experience Theater. Issued 30 sept 1969 / Filed 9 March 1966. Available at: http://www.patents.ibm.com
Heilig, Morton L. Through www.telepresence.com JPEG images 1 2 3: Sensorama. Available at: http://www.telepresence.com/org/sensorama/
Lefcowitz, Eric. Retro Future: Virtual Fantasy. Available at http://retrofuture.web.aol.com/virtual2.html
Marcus, Aaron. The Dead Media Project: Sensorama. Available at http://www.wps.com/dead-media/notes/41/410.html
Rheingold, Howard. Virtual Reality. Summit Books, 1991. -- interview with Morton Heilig; he actually uses the last remaining Sensorama machine.
Aggleton, J.P., Waskett, L. The ability of odours to serve as state-dependent cues for real-world memories: Can Viking smells aid the recall of Viking experiences? British Journal of Psychology (1999), 90, 1-7. -- Museum odours could act as effective retreival cues for this incidentally acquired real-world episode. (?)
Interactive odorama pictures. Available at http://www.res.enst.fr/~auber/histpro1.html
Aoyama, S.A, The Role of the Sense of Smell in the Language Learning. Available at: http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/tcc_conf96/aoyama.html
Cain, William S. What we remember about odors. Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol 9 June/July 1984 p17-21 -- A great chart of item-by-item M/F odor identification. Best: coffee, peanut butter, vicks. Worse lighter flud, cough syrup. Men better at only a few, including mothbals, much better at ammonia and Brut.
Cann & Ross 1999 -- Olfactory stimuli as context cues in human memory. American Journal of Psychology, 102, 91-102 -- Different odors have no effect on attraciveness ratings. Presence of same smell at recall is good.
Eichenbaum, H. Using Olfaction to Study Memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Nov 30, 1998) 855, 657-669
Engen, Trygg. Remembering Odors and their Names. American Scientist, September-October 1997. p497-503.-- long and short term remembering. we can remember about sixteen - channel capacity. similar to vision. episodic odors just stay on, where as laboratory odors die off slower than laboratory pictures, but still not great. lists example where present twelve common odors, and typically only can identify six. textbooks still present Henning's prism, even though it obviously has nothing to do with how smells are arranged. tip-of-the-nose. further experiments to identify odors.
Engen, Trygg. Odor Sensation and Memory. Praeger Publishers, New York. 1991. -- # of receptors, 'sense of smell is a paragon of a sensor', reaction time is 130ms approx = other senses, unfamilar/familiar and liked/disliked, two-smell interactions, short term memory, olfactory dB reference, menstrual synchronization, babies learn to smell their mothers, FX of psychology: the three bottles dem. any person can identify only 50% of common doros, hormonal effects and sex differences in smell perception.
Engen, Trygg, Gilmore, Magdalena M., and Mair, Robert G. Odor Memory. in Smell and Taste in Health and Disease, T.V. Getchell et. al. Eds., Raven Press, New York 1991. -- no good at waking. arousal vs. working memory. odor and aging, brain disease.
Hirsch, AR and Johnston LH. Odors and Learning. J Neuro Orthop Med Surg 1996 17:119-126. -- Subjs completed Halsted-Reitan Test Battery 17% faster on subsequent trials when a floral odor was present.
Herz, R.S. Are Odors the Best Cues to Memory? A Cross-Modal Comparison of Associative Memory Stimuli. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Nov 30, 1998) 855, 670-674. -- odors are equivelant to other stiumuliin their ability to elecit accurate recall but that odor-evoked memoriesare always more emotional.
Herz, R.S. The effects of cue distinctiveness on odor-based context-dependent memory. Memory & Cognition, 1997, 25(3), 375-380.-- target words are evaluated faster if preceed by an odor with similar affect.
Herz, R.S. A Comparison of olfactory, tactile and visual stimuli as associated memory cues. AChemS XVIII Abstracts 614-615. -- odor memories are more emotional and intense than visual or tactile cues.
Herz, R.S. and Cupchik, GC. The effect of hedonic context on evaluations and experience of paintings. Empirical studies of the arts, Vol 1!(2) 147-166, 1993.-- all aesthetic evaluations of paintings where intensified when odor cue and painting hedonically congruent. evaluation of the most potent paintings less impacted, and women more sensitive.
Holloway, M. The Ascent of Scent. Scientific American (Nov 1999), 42-44. A profile of Rachel Sarah Herz. Area of research- the connection between memory and odor
Jehl, C., Murphy, C., Developmental Effects on Odor Learning and Memory in Children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Nov 30, 1998) 855, 632-634 -- Ability to name and remember smells is age-dependent and changes over adolesence. NB on back of White.
Knasko, Susan C. Simple and complex task performance during exposure to intermittent odors. Chemical Senses Vol 16 1991, p543 -- Subjects exposed to unpleasant odors are convinced that the odor has a negative effect on mood, health, performance tasks.
Laird, D. 1935 What can you do with your nose? Scientific Monthly, 41, 126-130. HUMANITIES Q.S423 -- 'anecdotal style' evidence that association of odors with past events is common. and slightly higher in women.
Lawless, Harry T., and Cain, William S. (1975) Recognition Memory for Odors. Chemical Senses and Flavors 1 331-337.-- Very slow delay over one month from initial 85% accuracy rate.
Ludvigson, Wayne H, and Rottman, Theresa R. Effects of Ambient Odors of Lavender and cloves on cognition, memory, affect and mood. Chemical Senses Vol 14. No. 4 pp525-536, 1989. -- Mixed results. Lavendar adversely affects arithmetic reasoning, but not reliably. Effects on affect hard to determine.
Reuters. Smell test may help prevent disease: Failure to identify odors linked to later Alzeimer's. Boston Globe pg A3, 28/8/00. -- Tests on ~67yr olds showed that if they could identify odors then a year later they were unlikely to develop Alzeimers
Rubin, D.C., Groth, E., and Goldsmith,D. J. (1984) Olfactory cuing of autobiographical memory. American Journal of Psychology, 97, 493-507 HUMANITIES JOURNAL BF.A498 -- Memories evoked by odors are less thought of and less discussed prior to the experiement and were more likely to be reported as never been thought of or discussed. There was a suggestion that odors might evoke more pleeasant and emotional memory than other types of cues.
Schab 1990 -- Odors and the remembrance of things past. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 16, 648-655 DEWEY BASEMENT (DUBLIN PER 150 ) Bl 2nd Fl. / PER 150. -- Three experiments examine effectiveness of odors as memory retreival cues. Exp.1 shows single ambient odor present on learning and testing improved recall over non-odor control and over odor at just learning or testing. Exp 2. replicated and showed that reinstating did imporove overall recall, recall of odor-related information was not significantly enhanced by the door cue. Exp. 3 showed that the same odor must be present on both learning and remembering for the learning benefit to occur.
DG Smith, Standing & de Man, 1992 - Verbal memory elicted by ambient odor. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 74 339-343.-- If smell A is present at learning, recall is better if smell A is present at remember, as opposed to smell B.
Sullivan TE, Schefft BK, Warm JS, Dember WN, O'Dell MW, Peterson SJ. Recent Advances in the neuropsychology of human olfaction and anosmia. Brain Injury, 1995, Vol 9 No 6 651-646. - IF you've had a brain injury that damanges your ability to smell, then it's particularly hard to pay attention.
Sullivan TE, Warm JS, Scheft BK, Dember WN, O'Dell MW, Peterson SJ. Effects of olfactory stimulation on the vigilance performance of individuals with brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 1998 Vol 20 No 2 p227-236. -- In an attention task, observers with a brain injury responded similarly to those of controls when dosed with peppermint.
Varney NR (1988) Prognostic significance of anosmia in patients with closed-head trauma. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 10: 250-254. -- people who can't smell loose their jobs [because they can't concentrate]
Wallace, Marie. Accelerate Learning in a Jiff with a Sniff. 1 March 2000. http://www.llrx.com/columns/guide37.htm
Warm, Joel S, Dember, William N, nad Parasuraman, Raja. Effects of olfactory stimulation on perforance and stress in a visual sustained attention task. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem 42 199-210 May/June 1991. -- Maguet (a relaxing fragrance) and peppermint (arousing) smell piped to subjects in a sustained attention task. Subjects receiving either detected more signals than unscented.
White, T.L, Hornung, D.E., Kurtz, D.B., Treisman, M, and Sheehe, P. Phonological and Perceptual Components of Short-Term Memory for Odors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (Nov 30, 1998) 855, (i think) p635... (not complete) -- Short-term olfactory encoding not verbal encoding of odors exists. NB on back of Jehl
Kahn, MJ (1983). Human awakening and subsequent identification of fire-related cues. Proceedings of the Human Factors Soceity 27th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Soceity pp806-810. RSC TA166.H8 Or not. -- people wake to noise, (100% of the time) not smell of smoke or heat. (75%) of the time.
Mochizuki, K., Suzuki, Y., Kihara. T, Yano, F., Ninimija, S.P., The Arresting Effect of Fragrance on Inclining Sleep. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1990, p. 2051 -- Smell of lemon will wake you up, but only if you had enough sleep the night before. Jasmine and lavender were not effective.
Bannister, Emma. The Developing Face of Fragrance. Marie Claire, September 1995. UK Edition. p257-262. -- Fluffy, but mentions biometrics, Dodds. Perfumes mainly.Baron, R. A. (1988) Perfume as a tactic of impression management in social and organizational settings. in Perfumery: The psychology and biology of fragrance, van Toller, Steve and Dodd, George H., Eds. London, New York: Chapman & Hall.
Broom, Robert. A contribution to the comparitive anatomy of the Organ of Jacobson. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh v 39 pg 231-255 1897. -In man it is quite rudimentary.
Brill AA. The sense of smell in the neuroses and psychoses. Psychoanalysis Quaterly, 1, 7 1932. -- Heavily psychoanalytical jargon, mainly. Case histories of people with abnormal pathologies (like homosexuality, god forbid) having abnormal relationships with smell.
Charton, Eduoard (ed.) Explication de Diverse Variétés de Mirage. in Le Magazin Pittoresque, 1843. fasc. 1 Année 11. http://gallica.bnf.fr/scripts/ConsultationTout.exe?O=0031426&T=0 -- Nauscopie-related explanation of mirages. Primarily visual explanation.
Comfort, Alex. Likelihood of human pheromones. Nature 230, 432 1971. SCI JOURNAL Q.N286 TCD PER 85-38 SLIP 24/11/00 -- "Humans have a complete set of organs which are traditionally described as non-functional, but which, if seen in any other mammal, would be recognised as part of a pheremone system. These include apocrine glands associated with conspicuous hair tufts, some of which do not produce sweat and must presumaly produce some other functioning secretion."
Cowley JJ and Brooksbank BWL. The effect of two odours compounds on performance in an assessment of people test. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2, 159 (1977). SCH-PLG J QP.P9737 or 1995+online TCD PER 76-19 -- Women rate photographs of men better when they're breathing androstenol and worse when they're breathing an aliphatic acid mixture found in vaginal secretions of primates. Hypothesis that one is male-female, the other female-female communication.
Cowley, JJ and Brooksbank, BWL. (1991) Human exposure to putative pheromones and changes in aspects of social behavior. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 39 647-659. SCI J QP.J868 TCD Hamilton Library PER 574 1969-1990 -- When women are exposed to androstenol but not fatty acids they have higher rates of social exchanges with men. Hm.
Desor J.A. and Beauchamp, Gary 1974. The human capacity to transmit olfactory information. Perception and Psychophysics 16:551-556. -- Compares single chemical odors vs. smells of whole things. Does not, in fact, seem to be about the human capacity to transmit olfactory information but rather the capacity to receive. Eit.
Dill, J. Gregory. The Lost Art of Nauscopie. Ocean Navigator 79, Jan/Feb 1997. -- Obscure french civil servant circa 1762 invents now-lost method of consistantly predicting when ships will arrive, four days before they appear, by a method of sensing distruption of chemical contents of the water.
Doty, Richard L.(1981) 'Olfactory communication in humans' Chemical Senses 6, 351-376. -- Excellent review article of all work to that date regarding olfactory communication in humans.
Doty, Richard L. 'Communication of gender from human breath odors' Hormones and Behavior 16, p13 1982. -- People can tell men and women from their breath. They find man-breath more unpleasant.
Doty, Richard L. Odor-guided behaviour in mammals. Experientia 42 (1986) p257-271.-- List includes Age appraisal, alarm, attention-seeking defense, distress isgnalling, encouring approach, frustration, gender appraisal greeting, gregariousness, group membership apprasisal, identification with home range, individual appraisal, pain indication, preditor, prey, reproductive stage indiciation, social status appraisal, species membership, gender appraisal, submission, teritory marking, trail marking, warning. Not including time! All of those are from Mykytowycz. Very extensive list of references on the topic.
Gilbert, Avery Nelson, Friedlund Alan J, and Sabin John. (1987) Hedonic and social determinants of facial displays to odors. Chemical Senses 12(2) 355-363. -- Had subjects smell scents and were videotaped. 87% of the time when subjects posed to imagined or real odors; when they didn't know they were being videotaped, was only identifiable 37% of the time.
Gladstone, Brooke and Hirsch, Dr.Alan. Smell Disorders. OnHealth Webcast 19 Oct 1999. http://onhealth.webmd.com/home/live/ohlive/archive/item,51406.asp -- When people lie they touch their noses and lean forward and don't use contractions. And erectile tissue in the nose. And smell disorder treatments. and some figures on penile blood flow changes with a whole bunch of different smells. Ethnic groups.
Gower, DB, Nixon, A., Mallet, AI. (1988) The significance of odorous steroids in axillary odour. in Perfumery: The psychology and biology of fragrance, van Toller, Steve and Dodd, George H., Eds. London, New York: Chapman & Hall. -- biophysiology of pheremone production & reception.
Harper's Magazine. "Scenting a Generation Gap." March 1992, p28.-- Different generations find different smellscomforting. People who were children in the 50s find natural smells, woodsmoke, pine, etc. comforting. People who were children in the seventies find many artificial smells comforting: crayolas, Play-Doh, Windex, marijuana, tuna casserole, downy fabric softner, cocoa puffs
Hirsch, A.R. Human Male Response to Olfactory Stimuli. http://www.aanos.org/jrl_an_article.htm -- Big responders: Lavender and pumpkin pie 40%, doughnut and black licorice 31%, pumpkin pie & dughnut 20%, orange 19.5%. Lavender alone 8%, pumpkin pie alone 8.5%. Cinnamon buns 4%.
Hirsch AR. Effect of an Ambient Odor on slot-machine usage in a Las Vegas casino. Biological Psychiatry 33 (6A) A152-152 Suppl. S Mar 15 1993 -- So there's this smell, which he doesn't say what it is, that increases slot machine usage by 33% when it's in the air.
Hirsch AR, and Kim JJ. The effects of odors on penile blood flow - a possible impotence treatment. Psychosomatic Medicine 57:57-96 (1995).
Hirsch AR, Gruss J, Bermale, C, Zagorski D, Schroder MA. The effects of odors on female sexual arousal. Psychosomatic Medicine 60. p95. -- Increase in vaginal bloodflow. Notable odors: "good and plenty" + cucumber: +13%, baby powder +13%, lavender and pumpkin pie +11%, baby powder and chocolate +4%, perfume +1%, men's cologne -1%, charcoal bbq meat -14%, cherry -19%.
Hirsch, AR. Effects of Garlic Bread on family interactions. Psychosomatic Medicine 62 p103. 2000.-- When there's garlic bread everyone's happier.
Irish Times. The Cheque is in the Post, No Sweat. 26 October 1991. -- Bodywise, a UK company has a patent on spraying adrostenone onto bills. (This is unverifiable.)
Kallan, Carla. Scientists say aromas have a major effect on emotions. Los Angeles Times, 13 May 1991. Metro BPage 3 Column 1. -- Scents can people alert (ref) and japanese study
Karlson, P., and Lüscher, M. (1959) 'Pheremones': a new name for a class of biologically active substances. Nature 183, 55-56, January 3, 1959.
Kirk-Smith, MD and Booth DA. (1980) Effect of androstenone on choice of location in others' presence. Olfaction & Taste VII: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste. van der Staare, ed. Oxford: IRL Press, 397-400.
Kirk-Smith MD and Booth DA. (1987) Chemoreception in human behaviour: experimental analysis of the social effects of fragrance. Chemical Senses 12(1) 159-166. -- Review article. Partiuclarly looking at non-pheremonal. Reports men & women rated photographed men and women as sexier and softer and their own mood as more sexy in the presence of Shalimar perfume.
Kirk-Smith, Michael, Booth DA, Carroll D, Davies P. Human Social Attitudes Affected by Androstenol. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior. Vol. 3 No. 4 1978. -- This is the paper that says 'androstenol made the photographed women appear sexually more attractive in the judgement of both men and women, with a conceptually related and weaker effect on judgements about the photographed men.' Boom, there it is.
Kirk-Smith, Michael, van Toller S, and Dodd, GH. (1983)Unconcious odour conditioning in human subjects. Biological Psychology 17 221-231. -- People can learn to associate a smell with anxiety.
Kluger, J. Following Our Noses. Time, (Mar 23, 1998) v.151 no.11
Knight-Ridder Tribune. Stench capsule may be rape detterent. Arizona Republic 27 March 1994. -- Some guy has come up with mercaptan capsule for rape prevention. Great line about "And think of the particular poetry of it: after years of being told they need to use 'feminine hygiene sprays' to make them smell more attractive, women can turn the tables and actually make themselves so putrid that men will run screaming into the night." which is interesting from a feminist ownership yaknow kinda thing.
Largey, Gale Peter, Watson, David Rodney. The Sociology of Odors. American Journal of Sociology, Vol 77 Issue 6 May 1972 1021-1034.
McClintock, Martha. Menstrual Synchrony and Suppression. Nature Vol 229 Jan 22 1971. p244-245. -- Classic paper on menstrual cycle syncrony in roommates. Does not mention smell; other articles ref it and suggest smell is how it works.
Stern, Kathleen and McClintock, Martha. (1998) Regulation of ovulation by human pheremones. Nature 392, 177-179, 12 March 1998. -- Responds to Doty (1981), rexecutes (Russel, Switz & Thompson) and fixes errors.
Monti-Block, Luis, C Jennings-White, DS Dolbert and DL Berliner. 'The human vomernasal systems' Psychoneuroendocrinology 19 673 (1994) TCD PER 76-19 -- There is a human VNO. Chemicals that produce an electrical response in the VNO do not necessarily produce an electrical response in the olfactory epithelium and vice versa. (IE, just because we can't smell a chemical doesn't mean it does nothing.) Different responces were produced by certain chemicals in men and women.
Motluk, A. Heavenly Scent. New Scientist 3 July 1999. -- smell conveys information. little old lady armpit smell can make you happy. reporting ondenise chen of monell chemical senses center. young men make you depressed.
Motluk, A. The Scent of Fear. New Scientist 1 May 1999. -- people can recognise the difference between happy and fearful. well, everyone can smell fearful men. and most women can smell happy men. but men can't smell emotions.
Nass, Clifford, Steuer, Jonathan, and Tauber, Ellen R. (1994) Computers Are Social Actors. Proceedings of CHI '94 (Boston, MA.) p72-78. -- We treat computers as if they were people. This is interesting in the context of computers that can produce smells, and the rest of this section.
O'Neill, Molly. Taming the Frontier of the Senses: Using Aroma to Manipulate Moods. New York Times, 11/27/91 page B1.
Pause, Bettina M, Rogalski, Karin P., Sojka, Bernfried, Ferstl, Roman. Sensitivity to androstenone in female subjects is associated with an altered brain response to male body odor. Psysiology and Behaviour 68 (1999) 129-137. -- EEG response to androstenone proportion to ability to smell it.
www.pheremonespray.com "Incredible Discovery: Amazing New Sex Scent Attracts 3 out of 4 Women!"
Porter, Richard H., Balogh, Rene D., Cernoch, Jennifer M., Franchi, Christie. (1986) Recognition of kin through characteristic body odors. Chemical Senses 11(3) 389-395. -- fathers, grandmothers and aunts reliably identified garments from their neonatal relatives. Adult kin accurately discriminiated between the odors of their sibling (absence 1-30 months) and a stranger.
Russel, Michael J., Switz, Genevieve M., Thompson, Kate. Olfactory Influences on the Human Menstrual Cycle. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol 13 p737-738. (1980) -- Rubbing sweat from underarm of donor with very regular menstrual cycle makes others change their cycles to synchronize. Seems like a well-executed study.
Shulaev, Vladimir, Silverman, Paul, & RAskin, Ilya. (1997) Airborne signalling by methyl salicylate in plant pathogen resistance. NatureVol 385 20 Feb. -- It appears that plants output smells (wintergreen) when they are inoculated with a virus, maybe as an airborne signal.
Smith, Kathleen and Sines, Jacob. Demonstration of a Peculiar Odor in the Sweat of Schitzophrenic Patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 2 184-188. -- [Some] schitzophrenics have an odor that can be distinguished from non-schitzophrenics. (But it seems that the group was selected such on the basis of [schitzophrenic] and [has the smell], and there was no testing of those diagnosed with schitzophrenia and without the smell.
Stoddart, M. The scented ape. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Great Britain. 1990.
Taylor, Robert. The Story of Realm. The Journal of National Institute of Health Research. January 1994, Volume 6. Avaliable at http://www.erox.com/SixthSense/StoryTwo.htm
V-Scent (2001). "Sexually Attract Women Instantly with nature's secret weapon... Pheremones!!" Unsolicited Email, 1 May.
Ward, Bernie. Breath Deeply. Denver Post, 18 June 1995. -- Shimizu/Kajima Construction Co.s in Japan install fragrance systems. Kajima Corp has the Total Environmental Perfume Control System, citrus in AM, floral at midday and woodland at day's end.
Weller, Aron and Weller, Leonard. 'Menstrual synchrony between mothers and duaghters and between roommates.' Physiology and Behaviour, 53, 943 (1993). SCI JOUR QP.P5785 no dbase TCD Hamilton PER 574 -- mothers & daughers vs. women sharing a room in a private residence vs. women sharing a room in dormitory. make some conjectures about corresponding degrees of interaction with each other, other women, men. mothers & daughters in same domicile display significant synchronicity. Roomates in private residences also, but not significantly more than dorms.
Weiner, Harry, External Chemical Messengers I: Emission and Reception in Man. New York State Journal of Medicine, v66 p3153 1966. -- duterium levels in saliva > serum. spit, tears, all mucous membranes ECM? Case studies of olfactory hypersensitivity.
Weiner, Harry, External Chemical Messengers II: Natural History of Schizophrenia. New York State Journal of Medicine. v67 p1144 1967. -- Introduces the theory that schizophrenia is a state of excessive awareness of other people's chemical emissions. Explores case studies & histories of this. Schizophrenic language. (very interesting.)
Weiner, Harry, External Chemical Messengers III: Mind & Body in Schitzophrenia. New York State Journal of Medicine. v67 p1286 1967.-- Continues. allophobic (gives off negative ECM) vs. likable. 75% psychiatrists effective with schiz patents, 25% not - but that 25% more effective with neurotic. empathy, etc. More on that arguably flawed experiment about schizophrenia smell, Smith & Sines. Fx of psilocybin, LSD: increased sensory inc. olfactory sensing. Side fx of psychoactive drugs: possibly decrease ECM sensitivity? (This could start to explain loss of sexual appetite that happens in conjunction with prozac, xanax, etc.) Strindberg describes his wife's long-range awareness "Her moods I could perceive from afar as a sense between taste and smell, without being either... the scent was not a scent and the flavor was not a flavor. Hyperodors they were and hypersavors." Schizophrenics seem to be able to read psychiatrist's emotions.
Watson, Lyall. Jacobson's Organ and the Remarkable Nature of Smell. WW Norton & Company, New York, 2000. -- Overview of the role of jacobson's organ (the VNO) in primarily human interaction. Topics include history of VNO, tiger in Sanskrit means 'vyagra' from the word 'to smell', studies with androgen and androstenol, menstrual cycles, East African rodent Liphiomys, cranial nerves (briefly), tree communication!, plant communication using salicylic acid, schitzophrenia, all incense comes from myrrh, frankincense, laudanum, galbanum and styrax, all are resins known respectively as balsa, olivanum, onycha, asa foetida and balm of Gilead from desert shrubs in Arabia and North Africa, they are biochemically remarkably similar to human hormones, perfume and personality types, Erox, synethestic language (touch -> taste -> smell but not other direction), kodo, stero smell,nautoscopy.
Weller, Aron and Leonard Weller. The impact of social interaction factions on menstrual synchrony in the workplace. Psychoneuroendocrinology 20, 21, 1995. -- Social interactions have a direct relevence to degree of synchronicity.
Williams Joseph M Synesthetic adjectives Langugage 52 461 (1976) -- Descriptive words go touch-->taste-->smell and dimension/colour sound in there too. But we never describe tastes in terms of smell or touch sensation in terms of smells.
Wright Karen. The Sniff of Legend. Discover, p61-7 April 1994 p9. -- Good pop psych introduction to the politics, etc, surrounding the discovery of the VNO. Inc great Ralph Steadman illustrations.
Wysocki, Charles J and Lepri, John J. Consequences of removing the vemeronasal organ. J. Steroid Biochem, Molec. Biol. Vol 39 No 4B, pp661-669, 1991. -- When you remove the VNO from [a bunch of rodents] all sorts of weird non-standard mating behaviours seem to get screwed up.
Desor J and Beauchamp G 1974. The human capacity to transmit olfactory information. Perception and Psychophysics 16, 551-556.
Engen T and Pffafman C. 1959. Absolute judgement of odor intensity. J of Experimental Psychology 58 23-26.
Engen T and Pffafman C 1960. Absolute judgement of odor quality. J of Experimental Psychology 59 214-219.
Garner WR. (1953) An informational analysis of absolute judgements of loudness. Journal of Experimental. Psychology 46:373-380.
Garner WR and Hake HS. The amount of information in absolute judgements. Psychol. Rev. 1951 58 446-459. -- Refed in Engen & Pfaffman 1959. Information theory and psychophysics.
Hainer, R.M, Emslie, A.G., Jacobson, A. (1954) `An Information Theory of Olfaction, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, v. 58, pp. 158-174
Kurtz, Daniel B, Sheehe, Paul R., Kent, Paul F., White, Theresa L., Hornung, David E., and Wright, Herbert N. Odor quality perception: A metric individual differences approach. Perception & Psychophysics 62 (5), 1121-1129, 2000.
Lorig, T.S., Elmes, G.E., Yoerg, V.L., Chemosensory Alteration of Information Processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Nov 30, 1998) 855, 591-597.-- The effects of odor on cognition are mixed. Lists references. Then I don't understand what they did.
Moskowitz, Howard R., Dravnieks, Andrew, Cain, William S. (1974) Standardized proceedure for expressing odor intensity. Chemical Senses and Flavor 1:235-237. -- Compare everything to 250ppm by volume of 1-butanol in air, designed "10".
Shannon, CE. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol 27 pp379-423, 623-656, July, October 1948. At http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/what/shannonday/paper.html
Wright, R. H. The Science of Smell. Basic Books, Inc. New York, 1964.-- dB. JNDs for campho, etc. how strong? n-heptenal diluted with benzyl benzoate
Cain, W. Handbook of Perception, vol. VIA, Academic Press, NY 1978
Edwards, Rob. Far from Fragrant. New Scentist, 4/9/99. -- frequent use of aerosols and air fresheners in the home may make babies and pregnant women ill.
Fragranced Products Information Network. http://www.ameliaww.com/fpin/fpin.htm
Frosch, P.J., Johansen, J.D., White, I.R., Fragrances, Beneficial and Adverse Effects. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1998.
Cain, W. History of Research on Smell. in Handbook of Perception, Volume VIA, Tasting and Smelling, Carterette, E. C., and Friedman, M. P. (eds). Chapter 6. -- history of research. great boring quote about much written, little said. good big picture.
Classen, C., Howes, D., Synnott, A. (1994) Aroma. The cultural history of smell. Routledge, London.-- A great cultural background to smell. Everything you'll need to know.
Le Guérer, A. Translated by Miller, R. Scent - The Mysterious and Essential Powers of Smell. Turtle Bay Books, New York 1992. -- wide ranging and diverse. perfume as a tool of satan, witches and smells, smell and recognition of the other, ethnic identity and smell, philosophy's reactions to smell, description of kodo. more specifically: p10 "the adult male has no vomeronasal organ", 13 schitzophrenia, smell bypasses thalamus straight to rhinencephalon, 38 plague=smell, theriac, 89-93 mummies!, 120-6 saints, sap & blood, p184 Nietzsche: "The nose, for example, of which no philosopher has ever spoken with veneration and gratitude - the nose is, abeit provisionally, the most delicate instrument at our disposal: it is an instrument capable of recording the most minimal changes of movement, changes that escape even spectroscopic detection.", 190 no VNO again, freud, photographer Joseph Breitenbach aura of the scents eminating from flowers??, odorama & games of identifying odors.
McCartney, W. Olfaction and Odours, An osphresiologoical essay. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1968. -- Hellen Keller, scientists don't study smell, historical (1691 richard boyle,england) through major papers published to 1968, , vibratory 1919, construction of an odor test room, smell in literature, hennig's prisim of smell, smells of solids, men smell better than women. dogs, birds, fish, savages, the blind, EJ Parry quote p111 "There have been numerous attempts at the classification of odours, all of which have been empirical and useless and most of which have been childish and absurd." in The Class. of Odors in Perf. Ess. Oil Rec. 7 129-132 1916. Do rocks, metals smell, p112 skunk=n-butylmercaptan, smell through the blood, male vs. female, young vs. old.
Ohloff, G. Scent and Fragrances. Translated by Wilhelm Pickenhagen and Brian M. Lawrence. The Fascination of Odors and their Chemical Perspectives. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1994. -- good history of smell. qualitative sensory perception. increasing role of artificial fragrances in perfume.
Olfactory Research Fund, Research in Progress. Available at: http://www.olfactory.org/m_research_progress.htlm
Pybus, D., and Sell, C. The Chemistry of Fragrances. Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999. -- History: Romans, Chivalry, Alchemy, Discovery. And more.
Alaoui-Ismaili, O., Vernet-Maury, E., Dittmar, A., Delhomme, G., and Chanel, J. Odor Hedonics: connection with emotional responce estimated by autonomic parameters. Chemical Senses 22: 237-248 1997. -- Lavendar happy, somewhat etyle aceto acetate. Camphor induced either happiness or surprise or sadnes depending on subject, butyric and acetic acids mainly induce negative emotions: anger and disgust. High correlation between subject report and autonomic estimation. Same as Vernet-Maury 1999.
Baron, Robert A.. (1990) Environmentally induced positive affect: its impact on self-efficacy, task performance, negotiation and conflict. Journal of Applied Social Psychology Vol 20 No. 4 p368-384.
Distel, Hans, Ayabe-Kanamura, Saho, Martinez-Gomez, Margarita, Schicker, Ina, Kobayakawa, Tatsu, and Hudson, Robin. Perception of everyday odors - correlation between Intensity, Familiarity and Strength of Hedonic Judgement. Chemical Senses 24: 191-199, 1999. -- Rated 18 odors for intensity, pleasentlyess and familarity. Correlation found between all factors. Notable positive correlations between perceived intensity and ratings of familiarity and hedonic strength.
Engen, T. (1988) The acquisition of odor hedonics. in Perfumery: The psychology and biology of fragrance, van Toller, Steve and Dodd, George H., Eds. London, New York: Chapman & Hall. -- in general associated. but not always.
Francis S, Rolls ET, Bowtell R, McGlone F, O'Dohherty J, Browning A, Clare S., Smith E. (1999) The representation of pleasant touch in the brain and its relationship with taste and olfactory areas. NeuroReport 10, 453-459. -- Pleasant touch is orbitofrontal cortex; not noticbly pleasant touch shows
Hermans, D., Baeyens, F., and Eelen, P. Odours as Affective-processing Context for Word Evaluation: A ase of Cross-modal Affective Priming. Cognition and Emotion 1998 12 (4), 601-613. -- If priming stimulus and target both positive or negative then better results than if happy word but unhappy smell.
Herz, R.S. Are Odors the Best Cues to Memory? A Cross-Modal Comparison of Associative Memory Stimuli. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Nov 30, 1998) 855, 670-674. -- odors are equivelant to other stiumuliin their ability to elecit accurate recall but that odor-evoked memoriesare always more emotional.
Herz, R.S. Emotion experienced during encoding enhances odor retrieval cue effectiveness. American Journal of Psychology (Winter 1997), Vol. 110, No.4, 489-505 -- heightened emotion (nervousness) during encoding with an ambient odor can enhance the effectiveness of that odor as a cue to memory.
Herz, R.S., and Cupchik, G.C. The Emotional Distinctiveness of Odor-evoked Memories. Chemical Senses 20:517-528, 1995.-- odor invoked memories found to be more emotional. and if cue for recall hedonically congruent with painting then memory of original emotional experience enhanced.
Herz, R.S., and Cupchik, G.C. An experimental characterization of odor-evoked memories in humans. Chemical Senses Vol 17 No 5 pp519-528, 1992. -- Experimentally controlled odor-evoked memory. Can evoke memory without name of smell. Odor-evoked memories are vivid, emotional, specific and relatively old. Females describe more emotionally intense and clearer and more vivid memories.
Hirsch, AR and Johnston LH. Odors and Learning. J Neuro Orthop Med Surg 1996 17:119-126. -- Subjs completed Halsted-Reitan Test Battery 17% faster on subsequent trials when a floral odor was present.
King, J.R. (1988) Anxiety Reduction using Fragrances. in Perfumery: The psychology and biology of fragrance, van Toller, Steve and Dodd, George H., Eds. London, New York: Chapman & Hall. -- uses seaside fragrance.
Knasko, Susan C. Pleasant Odors and Congruenc: Effects on Approach Behavior. Chemical Senses 20: p479-487. 1995. -- When baby powder or chocolate odors were in the room, people looked longer at slides, had better self-reported moods and lower hunger ratings.
Pilner, Patricia and Steverango, Craig. Effect of Induced Mood on Memory for Flavors. Appetite 199, 22, 135-148. -- Congruency effect.
van Toller, S. (1988) Emotion and the Brain. in Perfumery: The psychology and biology of fragrance, van Toller, Steve and Dodd, George H., Eds. London, New York: Chapman & Hall. - by which he means, of course, emotion and smell and hte brain. EEG stuff, etc.
Vernet-Maury, Evelyne, Alaoui-Ismaili, Ouafae, Dittmar, Andre, Delhomme, Georges, Chanel, Jacques. (1999) Basic emotions induced by odorants: A new approach based on autonomic pattern results. J of the Autonomic Nervous System 75, 176-183. -- Lavendar happy, somewhat etyle aceto acetate. Camphor induced either happiness or surprise or sadnes depending on subject, butyric and acetic acids mainly induce negative emotions: anger and disgust. High correlation between subject report and autonomic estimation. Same as Alaoui-Ismaili 1997.
Axel, Richard. The molecular logic of smell. Scientific American, October 1995, 273 154-159 -- General overview of how we smell
Barinaga, M. Salmon Follow Watery Odors Home. Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286, pp. 705-706.
Barinaga, M. Mapping Smells in the Brain. Science (Jul 23, 1999), p. 508. -- intrinsic signal imaging to look at how rats smell things
von Békésy, G. (1964) Olfactory analog to directional hearing. Journal of Applied Physiology 19, 369-373.-- We have stereo smell.
Berglund B., Berglund U., Engen T., & Lindvall T. (1971b) The effect of adaptation and odor detection. Perception and Psychophysics v.9 p.435-438.
Cain, William. Olfaction. IN Richard C. Atkinson, Richard J. Herrnstein, Gradner Lindzey, and Duncan Luce (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology.2nd Ed. Volume 1: Perception and Motivation. John Wiley & Sons, New York. -- very solid intro to smell. good background of classifications schemes, anatomy, pleasantness of smells, pherenomes in contex,t odor quality, lots of references.
Cain, William S. (1974) Perception of odor intensity and the time-course of olfactory adaptation. ASHRAE Transactions v.80 p.53-75.
Cain, William S. (1977) Differential sensitivity for smell: "Noise" at the Nose. Science 195(4280) Feb. 25th, 796-798. -- basically, two smells have to be different by 25-33% intensity to notice the difference.
Cain, William S., and Murphy, Claire L.(1980) Interaction between chemoreceptive modalities of odour and irritation. Nature 284, 20 March, 255-257. -- Uses CO2 to create pungency in otherwise unpungent solutions by stimulating the trigeminal nerve.
Costanzo, Richard M. and Zasler, Nathan D. Head Trauma. in Smell and Taste in Health and Disease, T.V. Getchell et. al. Eds., Raven Press, New York 1991. -- Brain\ injuries that reduce your ability to smell suck.
Devos M., Patte F., Rouault J., Laffort P., and Van Gemert, L. J. (1990) Standardized Human Olfactory Thresholds. Oxford University Press, New York.
Engen, Trygg and Pfaffman, Carl. (1959) Absolute judgements of odor intensity. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Vol 58(1) 23-26.-- Classic paper that states that we can distinguish about 1.5 bits of information. Geometric progression.
Engen, Trygg and Pfaffman, Carl. (1960) Absolute judgements of odor quality. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol 59(4).
Gamble, Eleanor Acheson. (1898) The applicability of Weber's Law to Smell. The American Journal of Psychology 10:82-142.
Garcia-Valasco, Jose, and Maneul Mondragon. 'The incidence of the vemeronasal organ in 1000 human subjects and its possible clinical significance.' Journal of Steriod Biochemsitry and Molecular Biology, 39 561, 1991. QP.J868
Goldstein, E.B, Sensation and Perception, Fifth edition. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1999. pp. 439-467. chapter 15: The Chemical Senses
Gray, Henry. (1918) Anatomy of the Human Body. X. The Organs of the Senses and the Common Integument 1b. The Organ of Smell. Twentieth Edition. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1918. New York: Bartleby.com, 2000. Avaliable at http://www.bartelby.com/107/.
Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E., Hijman, Ron, Baare, Wim F.C., and Ree, Jan M. van. Effects of Context on Judgement of Odor Intensities in Humans. Chemical Senses 23 131-135. 1998. -- The intensity of odors smelled 25 minutes earlier can unintentionally influence subsequent odor intensity judgement.
Jennings-White, Clive. Perfumery and the Sixth Sense. Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol 20, July/Aug 1995. At http://www.csa.com/crw/web/vno.html and http://www.erox.com/SixthSense/StoryOne.htm
Jones FN. The reliability of olfactory threshholds attained by sniffing. Amer. J. Psychol. 1955, 68, 289-290. -- Shows that sniffing is generally reliable method of testing scents, with ~80% reliability.
Kauer, John. S. Coding in the Ol`factory System. Finger, T.E., Silver, W.L, Neurobiology of Taste and Smell, Wiley Series in Neurobiology. -- heavy neuro stuff
Keverne, E.B. The Vomeronasal Organ. Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286,pp. 716-720. --
Kimmelman, Charles P. Clinical review of olfaction. American Journal of Otolaryngology, Vol 14 No 4 (July-August) 1993. p227-239. -- Clinical overview, very technical, dense neuro-type overview.
Kirk, RL and Stenhouse NS. Ability to smell Solutions of Potassium Cyanide. Nature Vol 171 No. 4355 April 18, 1953 p698-699. -- suggest inability to smell KCn is sex-linked resessive: 24/132 males and 5/112 females were unable to distinguish KCn(aq) from H20.
Köster, E.P. Human Psychophysics in Olfaction. Methods in Olfactory Research, Chapter 9. Moulton, DG, Turk, Amos, Johnston, JW Jr, (Eds.) Academic Press, London. 1975. -- Olfactory psychophysics: how to do experiments to measure thresholds, less + more than stuff. you can only really vary concentration.
Krieger, J., Breer, H. Olfactory Reception in Invertebrates. Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286,pp. 720-723.
Laurent, G. A Systems Perspective on Early Olfactory Coding. Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286,pp. 723-728
Lawless HT. (1986) Multidimensional scaling. in L. Meiselman & RS Rivlin (eds) Clinical measurement of taste and smell p86-103 New York.-- I understand the idea, but I don't understand how it actually happens. Is it really just unqualified scales? Don't get it. But interesting.
Lawless, Harry T. Olfactory Psychophysics. (1997) in Tasting and Smelling, Beauchamp & Bartoshuk (Eds), (Handbook of Perception and Cognition, 2nd Edition).. p125-174. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. -- EXCELLENT overview of all psychophysics questions and properties.
I. Problems with smell research
1 - orthonasal not retronasal
2 - predominance of intensity vs. quality perception
3 - more than smell: trigeminal etc.
A. Requirements for comprehensive theory of odor perception
1 - number is quite large
2 - must address changes as a function of experience
a - so there may be no odor primaries
b - f(domain expertise)
3 - must address emotional response
1 - traditional feature models of pattern recognition may not apply
a - odors may be recognised as whole patterns
b - these complex patterns become simple: 'coffee'
2 - prototype/family resemblance difficult to test
3 - hierachies are importatn but we don't know why.
- and people are all different
II Detection and Threshholds
A - Measurement of Thresholds
- "In a systesm that is characterized by variability -- variability within individuals, across individuals, and within the stimulus -- it seems dangerous to put too much stock in a measure which can be interpreted as a single concentration value, above which there are sensations and below which there are not."
- Rabin & Cain 1986 found median intersession correlation of 0.61 using snifing bottles
- Punter 1983 found media retest of 0.4 using olfactometer.
- stevens et al 1988 tested 3 subjects over an extended period of time, and found massive fluctiations n thesensitivity of these subjects to three odorants. in fact, the distribution of individual thesholds over 20 measurements was similar to the variation observed in the population as a whole when many persons were tested a single time.
B - Individual differences and anosmia
freuqnecy of anosmias
name % odor type
isovaleric acid 3 sweaty
trimethyl amine 6 fishy
l-carvone 8 mint
pentadecalactone 12 musky
1-pyrroline 16 spermous
1,8-cineole 33 camphor
isobutyraldehyde 36 malty
androstenone 47 urine
(in amoore and steinle 1991)
III. Intensity Relationships
A. Discrimination Issues
1. intensity: engen & pfaffman 1959 1.5 bits, absolute basis
- AD Little Flavor Profile Method none-weak-moderate-strong
- dairy products: slight-moderate pronounced
B. Psychophysical functions
- there are things called pwoer functions.
- Cain 1974 increase necessary to sustain constant stimulus
1. higher concentrations take longer to adapt
2. after adaption, weaker stimuli are more effected than stronger
3. it appears not to be the case that people adapt entirely.
- but we adapt in < 1 minute.
1. variable results
- lemon-smelling products have citral = racemic mixture of
neral and geranial. but grasped as "artifical lemon odor"
- but phridine and lavender easily seperable cain&dexter 74
2. behaviour may be analytical ut perception synthetic
- ie describing redness or yellowness of a set of "orange"s
B. IntensitY: inhibitory interactions
- counteraction: reduction in malodor as function of addtional smells being present
- partial addition: (I=intensity) I(A+B)>I(A)|(I(B) but <I(A)+I(B)
- compromise: I(A)<I(A+B)<I(B)
- compensation: I(A+B)<I(A),I(B)
- note this doesn't work with a bounded scale.
- ie if two smells are above the midpoint...
- 3-component mixtures had thresholds 1/3 the concentration values of the threshholds of the indivdual components
- there's some wierdness at v low mixtures
D. blending vs. component identification
- complexity is not necessarily conserved
- v complex odors laska & hudson
V. information content
1. engen & pfaffman 1960 sez 16 odors, 4 bits
2. desor & beauchamp 1974 (human cap to trans olf comm) 80+
3. 4-choice multiple choices will be nearly perfect in
doty in s&t in h&d "olfactory system"
1. in tip-of-nose reading dictionary definition reminds you
2. in tip-of-tongue, that's how you elicit the word...
VI. Odor categories
. historical review: odour description and odour classification,
by harper bate sith and land 1968.
1. tendency to name by pointing to objects in the real world
- basis on knowledge of origin not perceptual similarity
2 murphy 1987: olfactory psychophysics in finger & snow (eds), neurobiology of taste and smell 251-273. points out that we have a tendency to do 7+/-2 categories
- wine aroma wheel p138
- may all work best in local similar smells
- MDS lawless 1989
Lawless, Harry T., Corrigan, Carol J., Johnston, Mary. (1995) Variation in odor thresholds for L-carvone and cineole and correlations with suprathreshold intensity ratings. Chemcial Senses 20: 9-17.
Malakoff, D. Following the Scent of Avian Olfaction. Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286, pp.704-705
Mombaerts, P. Seven-Transmembrane Proteins as Odorant and Chomosensory Receptors. Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286, pp.707-711
Monti-Bloch, L., and Grosser, B.I. (1991) Effect of putative pheromones on the electrical activity of the human vomeronasal organ and olfactory epithelium. J Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. Vol. 39 No. 4B, p473-482. -- Male/female differences in VNO responses to pheremones.
Moran David T, Jafek, Bruce W, Rowley, J. Carter III. The vomeronasal organ in man: Ultrastructure and frequency of occurence. J of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39, 545. (1991). -- All 200 subjects have them. "The vomeronasal pit leads to a closed tube, 2-8mm long, lined by a unique pseudostratified columnar epithelium unlike any other in the human body."
Mori, K, Nagao, H., Yoshihara, Y. The Olfactory Bulb: Coding and Processing of Odor Molecule Information. Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286, pp. 711-715.
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.Because you asked about Smell and Taste Disorders. Health Information Publication Updated December 1997.
New Scientist (Anonymous.) Two Sides To It. New Scientist 6 November 1999. -- Two nostrils give different results.
Ohloff, G. Chemistry of Odor Stimuli. Experimentia 42 1986 271-279. -- Good brief overview of the structural chemistry. Amoore's stereochemical theory updated.
Olds, J., & Milner, P (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419-427. -- classic paper on wirehead rats. Relevant fo the whole concept of pleasurable... anything, really.
Patterson, Matthew Q. Stevens, Joseph C., Cain, William S. and Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique. (1993) Detection thresholds for an olfactory mixture and its three constituent compounds. Chemical Senses 18:723-724. -- Complete aditivity: the threshold for each of three mixed compounds was 1/3 of the original threshold. So mixtures enhance sensitivity!
Revial MF, Sicard, G, Holley A. (1982) New studies on odour discrimination in the frog's olfactory receptor cells. I. Experimental Results. Chemical Senses 7(2). - More frog diagrams.
Richardson John TE, Zucco Gesualdo M. Cognition and Olfaction: A Review. Psyschological Bulletin 1989 Vol 105 No 3 352-360. -- Overview. Humans can smell very well but describe it badly, making it harder to remember. So linguistics is less important than hedonic factors in olfactory processing.
Rospara, Jean-Pierre, and Fort, Jean-Claude. Coding of odour quality: roles of convergence and inhibition. Network: Computation in Neural Systems 5 (1994) 121-145. -- Coding of odor quality (=identification) in the first two neuronal layers of olfactory systems, mainly using insects. First level is the receptors, then the spacial activity pattern of the principle neurons. Convergence and lateral inhiition. Etc.
Russell, MJ. (1976) Human Olfactory communication. Nature 260, 520-522. -- The T-shirt experiment: can you find your own? Can you find the man/woman? Everyone can, pretty much. The infant experiment: do they turn towards or move away from smell of a mother/their mother. Which they do, a bit after 2 weeks and totally after 6 weeks.
Sensonics, Inc. List of Clinical & Non-Clinical smell studies. http://www.smelltest.com/public.htm
Shepherd, Gordon M. Are There Labeled Lines in the Olfactory Pathway? Chapter Fifteen in Taste, Olfaction, and the Central Nervous System. A Festschrift in Honor of Carl Pfaffmann, Pfaff, Donald W., Ed., Rockefeller University Press 1985. -- Yes.
Silver, Wayne L and Maruniak, Joel A. (1981) Trigeminal chemoreception in the nasal and oral cavities. Chemical Senses 6(4).
SMITH RS, DOTY RL, BURLINGAME GK, MCKEOWN DA "SMELL AND TASTE FUNCTION IN THE VISUALLY-IMPAIRED" PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 54 (5): 649-655 NOV 1993 --Surprisingly few quantitative studies have addressed the question of whether visually impaired individuals evidence, perhaps in compensation for their loss of vision, increased acuteness in their other senses. In this experiment we sought to determine whether blind subjects outperform sighted subjects on a number of basic tests of chemosensory function. Over 50 blind and 75 sighted subjects were administered the following olfactory and gustatory tests: the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT); a 16-item odor discrimination test; and a suprathreshold taste test in which measures of taste-quality identification and ratings of the perceived intensity and pleasantness of sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride, and caffeine were obtained. In addition, 39 blind subjects and 77 sighted subjects were administered a single staircase phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) odor detection threshold test. Twenty-three of the sighted subjects were employed by the Philadelphia Water Department and trained to serve on its water quality evaluation panel. The primary findings of the study were that (a) the blind subjects did not outperform sighted subjects on any test of chemosensory function and (b) the trained subjects significantly outperformed the other two groups on the odor detection, odor discrimination, and taste identification tests, and nearly outperformed the blind subjects on the UPSIT. The citric acid concentrations received larger pleasantness ratings from the trained panel members than from the blind subjects, whose ratings did not differ significantly from those of the untrained sighted subjects. Overall, the data imply that blindness, per se, has little influence on chemosensory function and add further support to the notion that specialized training enhances performance on a number of chemosensory tasks.
Stensaas, Larry J., Lavker, Robert M., Monti-Block, L., Grosser, Bernard I., & Berliner, David L. Ultrastructure of the human vomeronasal organ. J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. Vol. 39 No. 4B pp 553-560, 1991. -- 400/400 subjects have VNO pits. Electron microscopy reveals microvillar and unmyelinated intraepithelial axons.
Stern, P, Marx,J. Eds., Making Sense of Scents. Special Issue, Science(Oct 22, 1999), v.286, p. 703
Stevens JC, Cain WS and Burke RJ. (1988) Variability of olfactory thresholds. Chemical Senses v.13, p.643-653.-- Three subjects over an extended period of time; found massive fluctuations in the sensitivity of these subjects to three odorants . In fact the distribution of indivudal thresholds over 20 measurements was similar to the variation observed in a population as a whole when many subjects were tested a single time.
Turetsky, Bruce I., Moberg, Paul J, Yousem, David M, Doty, Richard L. et al. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in patients with schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, May 2000 v157 issue 5 828-830. -- Patients with schizophrenia exhibit structural olfactory deficits as well as functional olfactory deficits.
Youngentob SL, Kurtz DB, Leopold DA, Mozell MM, and Hornung DE. (1982) Olfactory Sensitivity: Is there laterality? Chemical Senses 7(1). -- Left handed people are strongly more likely to have a more sensitive left nostril; right handed people are weakly more likely to have a stronger right nostril.
Wright, RH. (1954) Odour and chemical constitution. Nature 173(4409) p831 May 1.-- Vibrations below 700 cm^-1 are necessary to look at. Answered by a letter from G. Malcom Dyson.
Wolstenholme G. E. W., and Knight, Julie. Taste and Smell in Vertebrates, Symposium on. CIBA Symposiums, 1970.
Amoore, John E. A Plan to Identify most of the Primary Odors. Olfaction: Volume III.? p159-171. Psychophyiscs and sensory coding. -- Identify them through finding what people can't smell. Comes up with 44 categories. Lists others. (" I think this is the International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste (3rd : 1968 : 1969 Rockefeller University)"?
Amoore, John E. Specific Anosmia: a Clue to the Olfactory Code. Nature Vol 214, June 10, 1967 -- Refs: 1 n 10 cannot smell HCn, 1 in 1000 cannot smell the butyl mercaptan odour of skunk, Guillot refs. Isobutyric acid is hte big one. f(molecular similarity)
Amoore, John E. (1979) Directions for preparing aqueous solutions of primary odorants to diagnose eight types of specific anosmia. Chemical Senses and Flavour 4(2). -- Includes list: frequency of anosmias name % odor type isovaleric acid 3 sweaty trimethyl amine 6 fishy l-carvone 8 mint pentadecalactone 12 musky 1-pyrroline 16 spermous 1,8-cineole 33 camphor isobutyraldehyde 36 malty androstenone 47 urine.
Pelosi, Paolo and Viti, Raffaella. (1978) Specific anosmia to l-carvone: the minty primary odour. Chemical Senses and Flavour 3, 3, 331-7.-- But we're only talking a couple of dilution steps, not total anosmia.
Whissell-Buechy, D., Amoore, JE. Odour-Blindness to Musk: Simple Recessive Inheritance. Nature Vol 242 March 23 1973. -- Musk specific anosmia inheritance and prevelance in population matches that which one would expect in an X-chromosome simple recessive. "Isovaleric acid anosmia is common (9.4%) in N=77 Negroes and uncommon (1.4%) in our sample of N=849 Caucasians."
Wright, RH. (1978) Specific Anosmia: A clue to the olfactory code or to something much more important? Chemical Senses and Flavour 3(2).-- unsurprisingly, looks at Amoore's specifica anosmia work in the context of Wright's vibrational theory. Makes the point that "It is only within the last century that communcal sanitation has enabled such communities to do away with an all-pervading stench. McCord and Witheridge point that as recently as about 1860 the Thames near London became anaerobic and putrid and the city was plagued by clouds of hydrogen sulfide and other malodorous substances. Thus, until very recenty indeed, communal living was incompatibile with any refined discrimination of odorous signals, which could therefore play no more than a minor role in human affairs." Yeah? I'm not convinced. What about animals? Dogs for example, who have been domesticaed for quite a while now...
Wysocki, Charles J, Dorries, Kathleen M, and Beauchamp, Gary K. (1989) Ability to perceive andostenone can be acquired by ostensibly anosmic people. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, Genetics, Vol 86, pp 7976-7978, October. -- Which we would expect since anosmia could be olfactory epithelium and andostenone jacobson's organ, no? But their theory is otherwise; since olfactory epithelium cells are replaced relatively rapidly, by repeated exposure then it can be encouraged to grow more cells of that appropriate type. Interesting.
Cain, William S. (1975) Odor Intensity: Mixtures and Masking. Chemical Senses and Flavor 1 339-352. -- Mixing 1-propanol and n-amyl butyrate. Perceived intensity of the mixture was less than the combination, and sometimes even is less the concentration of one of them alone.
Cain, William S., and Drexler, Milton. (1974) Scope and Evaluation of Odor Counteraction and Masking. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. v237 p427-439. -- So generally two smells smell less bad than just the one.
Dodd, G. H. (1988) The molecular dimension in perfumery.in Perfumery: The psychology and biology of fragrance, van Toller, Steve and Dodd, George H., Eds. London, New York: Chapman & Hall. --
Jones, F. Nowell and Elliot, David. (1975) Individual and substance differences in the discrimination of optical isomers. Chemical Senses and Flavor 1 317-321. -- people can discriminate optical isomers by smell. Well, the ones they tested, anyway.
Laing DG and Willcox ME. (1983) Perception of components in binary odour mixtures. Chemical Senses 7(3/4).-- trans-2-hexenal and trans-2-decaenal. Confirms that total intensity of a mixture is less than sum of two.
Laska, Matthias, and Hudson, Robyn. Ability to discriminate between related odor mixtures. Chemical Senses 17(4) p403-415. --
Pike, Lisa M., Enns, Melvin P., Hornung, David E. (1988) Quality and intensity differnces of carvone enantiomers when tested separately and in mixtures. Chemical Senses 13(2) 307-309.
Polak, EH., Fombon, AM., Tilquin, C., Punter, PH. (1989) Sensory evidence for olfactory receptors with opposite chiral selectivity. Behavioural Brain Research v.31 p.199-206.
Wright, RH. (1977) Odor and molecular vibration: optical isomers. Chemical Senses and Flavors. 3, 35-37. -- Sometimes we can smell the difference.
Acree, Terry & Arm, Heinrich (1997) Flavornet. Available at: http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/flavornet/index.html
Amoore, John E. A Plan to Identify most of the Primary Odors. Olfaction Volume III.? p159-171. Psychophyiscs and sensory coding. -- Identify them through finding what people can't smell. Comes up with 44 categories. Lists others.
Amoore, John E. Stereochemical theory of olfaction. Nature Vol. 198 No. 4877 p 283-4, April 20 1963 -- Includes diagrams for his seven basic smells.
Amoore, John E., Johnston, James W., Rubin, Martin. The Stereochemical Theory of Odor. Scientific American v210 p42 1964. -- The popular press version of his 1963 Nature paper "Stereochemical theory of olfaction." Has much better, more extensive diagrams than the Nature paper. Lists his seven primary odors and their chemical example and familiar substance: camphoraceous (camphor/moth repellant), Musky (angelica root oil), floral (roses), pepperminty (mint cand), ethereal (dry-cleaning fluid), pungent (vinegar), putrid (bad egg).
Amoore, John E. Stereochemical and Vibrational Theories of Odour. Nature vol 233 September 24 1971 p 270-271. -- Applies his theories to Wright's compounds.
Cox, J.P. (1975) Odor Control and Olfaction. Pollution Sciences Publishing Company, -- Lots of stuff. Sorta wacky but fun. Odor classification schemes, schizophrenia has a smell!, good list of smells of diseases, classification scheme stuff.
Curtis, T. and Williams, D. Introduction to Perfumery. Ellis Horwood, New York, 1994.
Devos, M, et. al. Standardized Human Olfactory Thresholds. IRL Press at Oxford University Press, 1990.
Cain, WS. 'Educating your Nose' Psychology Today, July 1981 vol 15 no 7 p52. -- If you give good names to smells then you can identify more of htem.
Gilbert, Avery N., Martin, Robyn., Kemp, Sarah E. Cross-modal correspondence between vision and olfaction: The color of smells. American Journal of Psychology Fall 1996 Vol 109 No 3 p335-351. -- Wow. Seems valid! Doesn't seem to directly addressthe question of if it's a learned association with products -- ie cinnamon = big red chewing gum = red.
Harper, R., Bate Smith, E.C, Land, D.G. Odour Description and Odour Classification. American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc. 1967.
Harper, R. Some chemicals representing particular odor qualities. (1975) Chemical Senses and Flavour 1, 353-357.-- A list. IE Almond like: benzaldehyde, nitrobenzene. Animal: Civey, amber, musk, phenylacetic acid. Etc.
Hill, S. Sniff 'n'shake. New Scientist, pp.34-37 (year?) -- Vibratory characteristics of molecules may be primary method of sensing.
Kraus, Joseph H. (1922) The Smell Organ. Science & Invention, June 1922. As reprinted in Experimental Musical Instruments Magazine, and by the Dead Media Organisation, at http://www.deadmedia.org/notes/6/069.html
Linnaeus, Carl von. Odores medicamentorum. in Amoenitates academicae v3 1756 p183-201. -- Aww yeah. Linnaeus the classifier hits smells. p195 lists "I: Aromaticos. II: Fragrantes. II: Ambrocacos. IV: Alliaceos. V: Hircinos. VI: Tetros. VI: Naufeofos. and lists examples of each"
Miller, George A.(1956) The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information. Psychology Review 63 81-97. Avaliable at http://www.yorku.ca/dept/psych/classics/
Poucher, W. A. Poucher's Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Chapman & Hall, Volume 2, 9th Edition. 1995. Chapter Four - Odour Classificaton and Fixation.
Moskowitz, Howard R. and Warren, Craig B., Eds.. Odor Quality and Chemical Structure. American Chemical Society, 1981.
Sagarin, E. On the inherent invalidity of all current systems of odor classification. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists. p25-35 Vol .2 No. 1 1950. -- Classification is useful. But they all suck because they have irreproducable results.
Smell Database. Available at: http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/Smells/index.htmlTurin, Luca. A Spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception. Chemical Senses vol 21 p773 (1996).
EP 979 612 Coffee bean extracts have deodorizing effect. (New Scientist Column)
US 2,955,156 Heilig M. L. Stereoscopic Television Apparatus for Individual Use. October 4, 1960. -- Shit. He invented a virtual reality head mounted display in 1959.
US 3,050,870 Heilig M.L. Sensorama Stimulator. August 28, 1962. -- The big one. Virtual reality immersion, smells, the whole game.
US 3,795,438 Westenholz, Sven Torben, Kristiansen, Svend Helge, Roslyng, Ole. Assignee: Nordisk Ventilator Co. A/S. Apparatus for permeating an auditorium with odours in conjunction with projection of a motion picture film. Mar 5 1974 -- spray it into ventilation. requires separate input and output ventilation distributed around auditorium.
US 3,908,906 Crowle, W.G., Otrowsky E.G. Air freshener container or vapor diffusing device. Sept 30 1975. -- Standard Glade-type non-plug-in air freshener plastic conic container.
US 4,159,672 GarguiloM M, DeVito, R. Scent producing apparatus for forced air system. July 3 1979. -- Air conditioning system where you spray scent nto the filter.
US 4,556,539 Spector, Donald. Disc-Playing Aroma Generator. December 3 1985. Discontinued 24 Aug 1999! .-- basically one LP-player looking thing.
US 4,582,492 Etter, Robert, Neumiller, Phillip. Assignee: S.C. Johnson & Son. Method for behavior modification using olfactory stimuli. April 15, 1986.--so you have a nasty smelling scratch-and-sniff on one hand and when you feel the urge to pick your nose or smoke or bad habit of your choice you scratch it and then when you stop feeling the urge you scratch the good one and it smells nice.
US 4,603,030 McCarthy, Robert E. Scent Emitting Systems. July 29 1986 -- Rotary thing with chips of scent
US 4,629, 604 Spector, D. Multi-aroma Cartridge Player. 16 December 1986 . Discontinued 24 Aug 1999 -- Pads with liquid fragrance, each with an e heater. "May be synchronized to follow the scenes of a video tape or movie film presentation."
US 4,674,937 Warshauerer, Myron C. Multi-level vehicle parking facility. Issued 23 June 1987 / Filed 1 Nov 1985.
US 4,695,434 Spector, Donald. Aroma-Generating Unit. Sept 22 1987. Discontinued 24 August 1999.-- Periodically spray out smell on a given duty cycle.
US 4,795,883 Glucksman D.Z., Pezaris, C.D. Assigned to Environmental Fragrance Technologies, NY NY. Aroma Generating Apparatus and Driver Circuit. Jan 3, 1989. --A driver circuit heats on a timing device for generatoring aroma.
US 4,905,112 Rhodes, S.W. Scent Cassette. Feb 27, 1990. -- Let's put a smell output device in a cassette tape. So that people don't have to take their eyes off the road to identify a cassette in the car. [sic] Well, at least it's conveying information through smell.
US 5,011,632 Yano, H, Hashimoto S, Horiyama, T. Assigned to Shimizu Construction Co. Ltd, of Tokyo Japan. Ultrasonic fragrance generation apparatus. 30 April 1991. -- notes that lemon group fragrances increase alertness; rosemary relaxes. Schedule over the day. 26 US citations, 17 foreign. Ultrasonic to create mist.
US 5,023,020 Machida, H, Asano, M, Watanabe, Y, Tokuhiro, T, Satoh, H, Iwahashi, M, Yamaguchi, N, Kikuchi, K. Watanabe, H. Assigned to Shimizu Construction Co, Tokyo Japan. Method for supplying aromas, apparatus therefore and facilities provided with the same. June 11 1991. -- Same litany about what different aromas do. ~20 US patent refs, ~7 foreign.
US 5,071,621 Tokuhiro, et al. Assignee: Shimizu Construction Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan. Method of supplying scents to a room of a motor vehicle.Dec 10, 1991-- lemon when hard braking state. lavender in high stress situations.
US 5,105,133 Yang, Tai-Her. Multiple Mode Perfumer. April 14, 1992. -- Automatic perfumer that sprays intermittantly and has photocell so it only works when lights are on or daytime to save wasting.
US 5,115,975 Shilling, L. Dispenser device and cartridge for volatile substance with rate control for volatilization therof. May 26, 1992 -- Plugin smell cartridge, with a heater and timer.
US 5,175,791 Murderlak et al. Assignee: Technical Concepts, LP. Chicago IL. Fragrance diffuser having stepped power levels. 29 Dec 1992. -- Makes smells from fragrance emiting blocks.
US 5,278,141. Berliner, DL. (1994) Assigned to Erox Corporation. Fragrance compositions containing human pheremones.
US 5,297,988 Nishino et.al. Assignee: Nippondenso Co Ltd, Kariya, Japan. Fragrance supplying apparatus for vehicle. 29 March 1994. -- Through the aircon.
US 5,398,070 Lee, Dong H. Assignee: Goldstar Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. Smell Emission Control Apparatus For Television Receiver. 14 Mar 1995.-- Smell TV. As you'd expect.
US 5,565,148 Pendergrass, Daniel B. Jr. Assignee: 3M. Device for selectively providing a multiplicity of aromas. 15 October 1996. -- "Especially useful for providing a realistic sensory experience in an interactive or non-interactive use, and may be used in...the entertainment industry, the educational training field or a medical arena." Covers VR helmet, smell thing round neck, Sensorama!
US 5,610,674. Martin, D.A. Precision Fragrance Dispenser Apparatus. May 11, 1997. -- Headmounted. With breath sensor to sense when the right time to output. Pressurized gas delivery.
US 5,716,011 Barbier, JP. Assigned to L'Air Liquide, S.A. for L'Etude et L'Exploitation des Procedes Gaurges Claude, Paris. Process for diffusing an odoriferous substance. Feb 10 1998. -- 15+2 refs. Pressurized gas "An overoxygenation of a zone or of a medium may indeed cause an activation of combustion phenomena, resulting in a degredation of some materials such as electric motors." Good table of minimum concentrations necessary to notice smells: you need 1000x more lemon than strawberry.
US 5,724,256: Lee, Joseph Kinman, Lentz, James Lee, Novof, Iosephovich. Assignee: IBM. Computer Controlled Olfactory Mixer and Dispenser for use in Multimedia Computer Applications. Mar. 3 1998 -- Deliver onto rotating device through which air is forced thereby mixing the odors.
US 5,727,186 Shervington, EA, Burningham, RC. Assigned The BOC Group PLC, Surrey, England. Simulation apparatus and gas dispensing device used in conjunction therewith. March 10, 1998. -- Displaying 3d graphics and producing a smell at the same time.
US 5,760,873 Wittek, G-U. Process and Device for the Synchronous Addition of Odours to Visual and/or Acoustic Stimulation. June 2, 1998. -- Smells produced at cinemas, etc, at the appropriate temperature. Film with a smelltrack. To the seat, a la Aromarama.
US 5,832,320 Wittek, G-U. Process and Device for the Synchronous Addition of Odours to Visual and/or Acoustic Stimulation. June 2, 1998. -- Basically the same as 5,760,873 but aimed at one system for lots of seats, not many individual ones.
US 5,887,118 Huffman, James Robert of Austin, TX, Cruichshank, Ronald Dale of Durham, NC, Jambhekar, Shrirang Nikanth, of Schaumburg, IL, Myers, Jeffery Van, of Driftwood, TX, Collins, Russell Lawrence, of Austin, TX.. Assignee: Motorola. Olfactory Card. 23 March 1999. -- A PCMCIA card which produces smells.
US 5,591,409: Watkins, Carl J. Providing Aromas Jan 7. 1997 -- sprays activated by solenoids. includes 'nosephone' type device.
US 5,949,522 Manne, J.S. Multimedia linked scent delivery system. September 7 1999. -- Air compressor to carry smells directly to nose thru mask.
US 5,972,290 de Sousa, M. Process and Equipment for the Programmed Scenting of Environments. 26 October 1999. -- Piercing capsule to release smell. Basically the same as 4,556,539 except the dominant media paradigm of the time is the CD player not the LP.
US 6004516: Firooz Rasouli, Hamid Arastoopour, Ali Oskouie. Assignee: Illinois Institute of Technology -- Apparatus for generating odor upon electronic signal demand Dec. 21 1999
US 6,024,783 Mark Budman. Assignee: IBM. Aroma Sensory Stimulation in Multimedia. 15 February 2000 -- Patent to.. well, do everything you'd expect. Hmm.
US 6,032,930 Calino, JC. Automatic Air Freshening System. March 7, 2000. -- Put smell into aircon of car or house.
US 6,090,344 Yamauchi, S., Murayama, N. Assignee: Ricoh Company, Japan. Method and system for generating scent from independently releasable sources of scent causing agents. July 18, 2000. -- Basically fax-a-scent with fax paper preimpregnated with a selection of scents and you can pick the one you want output.
WO 99/08174 Illinois Institute of Technology -- Apparatus for generating odor upon electronic signal demand. See US 6004516
WO 00/15268 Aromix Technologies Ltd. Methods and Apparatus for Odors Transmission. Available at http://www.patents.ibm.com.-- Gas chromatography to analyze input and transmitted to output.
WO 00/15269 Aromix Technologies Ltd. Methods and Apparatus for Odor Reproduction. Available at http://www.patents.ibm.com.-- Some kind of 'odorant fingerprint generator'... but then producing by scratching/burning/whatever off a disc of smells.
W0 00/37092 Proctor & Gamble. Aromatherapy in Irons. Valerian oil is good for headache and stomach cramps, while nutmeg helps digestion. A small dose of alkyl phosphonic acid esters stops the oils foaming and carboxyl-containing polymers stop the mix staining clothes. Neroli oil acts not only as an antidepressant but also an aphrodisiac.
Black, Pamela. Business Week, December 23, 1991, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY; Number 3245; Pg. 82, 1365 words, NO ONE'S SNIFFING AT AROMA RESEARCH NOW, in New York, with bureau
Fost, Dan. Different Smells for Different Shoppers. American Demographics January 1991. -- Anecdotal from Dr. Alan Hirsch only
Kleinfeld, NR. (1992) The Smell of Money. October 25, Sunday, Late Edition - Final. Section 9; Page 1; Column 1; Styles of The Times -- more on Hirsch, particularly to make car salesmen smell honest smell. buying sneakers studies. the casino study.
Milner, Mark. Online Smells? France Telecom scents a winner. Guardian, ~4 Oct 2000. -- FT is looking at sending scents over itnternet.
Tillotson, Dr. Jenny. Charmed Technology. Official Bio Blurb.
Tillotson, Jenny. (1997) Interactive Olfactory Surfaces. The Wellness Collection - A Science Fashion Story. Ph.D Thesis, School of Fashion & Textiles Research, Royal College of Art, London.
Tan, EC., Wahab, A., Goh, GH, and Wong, SH. PC-Controlled Scent System. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol 44, No 1, February 1998. -- Stepper motors.
Wilke, Maxine. Scent of a Market. American Demographics August 1995.http://www.marketingtools.com/publications/ad/95_ad/9508_ad/ad783.htm
Scent controller specs and preliminary purchase order, May 31, 2000
Fragrance list, June 8, 2000
Abramson, Ronna. Sniff-Company Digiscents Is a Scratch. The Standard, 11 April 2001. -- Digiscents announced that it is shutting down and laying off all employees.
Digiscents. Letter accompanying mousepad. Dated July 2000. -- Our device is not availiable at this time for beta testing by developers. We promise that when they are availiable, you will be the first to know.
Tanaka, J. Touch Me, Feel Me. Newsweek (Aug 28,2000). pp.61-62
Reuters. Web Product That Makes Scents. (Oct 14, 1999). Available at: http:/www.wired.com/news
Slashdot on Digiscents. 21 Jan 2000 onwards.
Platt, C., You've got Smell! Wired, Nov 7, 1999. Available at: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/7.11/digiscent_pr.html
Korean firm making clothing under the brand LG Fashion with smell molecules embeded in the fabric.
Menon, Vinay. Today's Fashion Trend Setters Look for Dollars in the Scents. http://www.fashionfinds.com/ginas-articles/pages/torontostar11-15-99.htm
Tanaka, J. Touch Me, Feel Me. Newsweek (Aug 28,2000). pp.61-62 Mention of TriSENXMachine, that sprays a flavor solution on a potato-starch wafer.
SingleSenx Sampler. Dated 10/17/00. Hockey-puck sized, serial connection. Heated up upon plugging into serial port (without any software running). Inside is single wax, smells of ~hotel soap when heated up. Software downloaded, run, no effect. "is a single activation device" and "Top of device may get slightly warm. This Sampler should be used within seven days within [sic] receipt of this device." on accompanying letter.
Eisenberg, Anne. Machine Lets You Taste the Web. New York Times 21 December 2000. At http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/21/technology/21NEXT.html -- So Trisenx is making their device. Mentions Senomyx who are trying to identify and patent genes that make up scent and taste receptors.
A letter accompanying scent samples. June 19, 2000. Nasty artificial smells.
Company that manufacturs standardized smell testing equipment.
Persnickety (R) Brand Odor Countervailant (TM)
A letter accompanying scent samples. July 18, 2000. Available in bulk quantities only.
Digital Tech Frontier LLC - www.hightechentertainment.com
Sensory Theatre - Explore New Worlds without ever leaving your seat -- Smell in pulp VR.
Bertolino, Bill. (1997) Fantasy becomes virtual reality. 23-year-old's Chandler firm delivers 3-d sight, sound and smell. Arizona Republic 9 July 1997. -- He's got a system that does that.
Allport, G., Three Dimensional Navigation Using the Five Senses. Real World Visualisation - Virtual World - Virtual Reality, IEE Colloquium on , 1991 -- claims some VR 'partially' implemented with flowerbed allowing you to smell.
Anderson, D., Casey, M. The sound dimension. IEEE Spectrum (Mar 1997), pp.46-50 -- sound is important.
Barfield, Woodrow and Danas, Eric. Comments on the Use of Olfactory Displays for Virtual Environments. Presence, Winter 1995, Vol 5 No 1, p. 109-121.
Barnes, M. Virtual Reality and Simulation. Proceedings of the 1996 Winter Simulation Conference. pp.101-110 -- questionable. claims 30 basic smells.
Cater, J.P, Approximating the Senses: Smell/Taste: Odors in Virtual Reality. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1994. Humans, Information and Technology., 1994 IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 2 , 1994 -- Use of smell in firefighter traiing
Cater, John P., The Nose Have It! Letters to the Editor, Presence, Fall 1992, Vol 1, No 4, p. 493-494
Cater, John P. (2001) Personal Communication, by email & telephone. 26 March.
Cybermonk: Virtual Reality: Past, Present and the Future. http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1090/vr.html
Durlach, Nat. Comment on letter from Wenzel, Payne, and Payne about DATANOSE. in Presence, Winter 1995, Vol 5 No 1 p493.
Keller, Paul E., Kouzes, Richard T., Kangas, Lars J., and Hashem, Sherif. Transmission of Olfactory Information for Telemedicine. in Interactive Technology and the New Paradigm for Healthcare, K. Morgan, R.M. Satava, HB Sieburg., R. Mateus and J.P. Christensen (Eds.), IOS Press and Ohmsha, Amsterdam 1995, Chapter 27, p168-172. Avaliable at http://www.emsl.pnl.gov:2080/proj/neuron/papers/keller.mmvr95.abs.html.
Pearsall, T. Close Encounters of the Virtual Kind. Circuits & Devices (Jan 1999), pp.10-16
Praja, R.J,Real Reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (Jan/Feb 2000), pp.40-41.
Robinett, Warren. Comments on "A Nose Gesture Interface Device: Extending Virtual Realities" [Presence 1, 258-261, (1992)], in Presence, Winter 1995, Vol 5 No 1 p493. -- We should look at using smell seriously.
Zybura, M., and Eskeland, G. Olfaction for Virtual Reality. Quarter Project, Industrial Engineering 543, University of Washington. Winter 1999. http://www.hitl.washington.edu/people/tfurness/courses/inde543/reports/3doc/
Berlinger David L, Jennings-White, Clive, and Lavker, Robert M. The Human Skin: Fragrances and Pheremones. J Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. Vol 39 No. 4B, 671-79, 1991. -- Suggests use of human-type pheremones not mammilian.
Bickham, Scott. (1997) An Introduction to Sensory Analysis. Brewing Techniques 5(6).
Leffingwell & Associates homepage. http://www.leffingwell.com
Leffingwell & Associates. 1998/9 Flavor & Fragrance Industry Leaders. http://www.leffingwell.com/top_10.htm
Meilgaard, M. C., Reid, D. S., & Wyborski, K. A. (1982). Reference standards for beer Flavor terminology system. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 40:119-128.
Muller P.M and Lamparsky D. Perfumes. Art Science and Technology. Elseevier Applied Science, 1991.
Noble, Ann. Wine Aroma Wheel. Accessed May 2001. Avaliable at http://wineserver.ucdavis.edu/
Norcy, S. Le. Selling perfume: a technique or an art. in Perfumery: The psychology and biology of fragrance, van Toller, Steve and Dodd, George H., Eds. London, New York: Chapman & Hall.
Ralph, Randy. Ambergris: A Pathfinder and Annotated Bibliography. http://www.netstrider.com/documents/ambergris/ -- Everything and more you ever wanted to know.
Reuters (2001.) Introducing the One-Scent Stamp! Thursday May 3 7:44 AM ET. Avaliable at http://dailynews.yahoo.com/htx/nm/20010503/od/chocolate_dc_1.html
Rosenbaum, R. 1979 "Today the Strawberry." p50-93. in 'Culture, curers and contagion: readings for medical social science.' -- Great overview of the flavour industry
Brody, Jane E. For Aromatherapy, Big Claims, Little Proof. New York Times 26 December 2000. Avaliable at http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/26/science/26BROD.html -- Not an impressive article; states claims from PDR for 9 oils; doesn't cite any of the research (mainly in German) that has been done. Quarter of article is warnings about what not to do.
Davis, Patricia. Aromatherapy A-Z. New Revised Enlarged & Illustrated Edition. C.W. Daniel Co. Ltd, UK. 1998.
Doheny, Kathleen. The Healthy Traveller: Getting a good nights sleep, even on the road; aromas and sunlight.... 13 Sept 1992 LA Times. -- ANZ & Virgin passengers get aromatherapy kits.
Keville, Kathi and Korn, Peter. Aromatherapy for the Emotions. Extract from Herbs for Health and Healing. http://www.mothernature.com/library/books/herbhealth/aromatherapy_for_the_emotions.asp
Lyth, Geoff and Charles, Sue. Aromatherapy Lexicon - The Essential Reference. Amberworth Publishing, Surrey, 1999.
Precious Aromatherapy. Aromatherapy Reading List. www.aromatherapy.com/resource.html
Schnaubelt, Kurt, Ph.D. Advanced Aromatherapy: The Science of Essential Oil Chemistry. Healing Arts Press, Rochester VT. 1998.
Worwood, Valerie Ann. The Fragrant Pharmacy. A complete guide to Aromatherapy and Essential Oils. Bantam Books, 1990.
Baller, M.K., et al. A cantilever array-based artificial nose. Ultramicroscopy 82 (2000), 1-9
Clede, Bill. New applications for old technology. Law and Order, Nov 1988. At www.clede.com/Articles/Police/scent.htm.-- Describes extensive use of sniffer dogs in LAPD. Friends of Dana Kirsch. Scent transfer unit: take article, vaccums smell onto a pad which can later be sniffed by police dog without contaiminating evidence.
Dagani, R. A 'Nose' That Shows Scents In Color. Chemical&Engineering News Online, (Aug 21, 2000) v.78, p. 9
Gopel, W. Weiss, T. Design for smelling. IEEE Spectrum (Sep 1998), pp.32-34.
Henry, T.R, Hudson, S.E., Yeatts, A.K., A Nose Gesture Interface Device: Extending Virtual Realities. UIST'91, pp.65-68
Henry, Tyson R., Yeatts, Andrey K., Hudson, Scott E., Myers, Brad A., Feiner, Steven. (1992) A Nose Gesture Interface Device: Extending Virtual Realities. in Presence Volume 1 Number 2. -- Another nose as interface device spoof. Reprint of the USIT '91.
Ikezaki, H., et al. Techniques to Control Sensitivity and Selectivity of Multichannel Taste Sensor Using Lipid Membranes.
Keller, P.E., Kouzes, R.T, Kangas, L.J., Hashem, S., Transmission Of Olfactory Information for Telemedicine. Available at: http://www.emsl.pnl.gov:2080/proj/neuron/papers/keller.mmvr95.html
Keller, P. Mimicking Biology: Applications of Cognitive Systems to Electronic Noses. 1999 IEEE, pp.447-451.
Langer, K. A guide to Sensor Design for Land Mine Detection, "Detection of abandoned land mines" Conference Publication No.431, IEEE 1996, pp.30-32
Malnic, B., Hirono, J., Sato, T., Buck, L. Combinatorial Receptor Codes for Odors. Cell Vol 96 713-723 March 5, 1999.
Marques, L., Almeida, A. Electronic Nose-Based Odour Source Localization, 2000 IEEE, pp.36-40
Miles, Maj. Donna. Developing an Electronic Dog's Nose. American Forces Press Service 14/6/98
Multisensor Array Technology and Artificial Neural Networks: A Means of Olfaction. Available at: http://www.people.cornell.edu/pages/jeh25/mat&ann.html
Nagle, H.T, Gutierrez-Osuna, R., Schiffman, S. The How and Why of Electronic Noses. IEEE Spectrum (Sep 1998), pp.22-31
Natale, C.D, et al. A Comparison Between an Electronic Nose and Human Olfaction in a Selected Case Study, 1997 IEEE, pp.1335-1338.
Ohloff, G. Scent and Fragrances. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1994. pp.57-67. Chapter 3: Quantitative Odor Perception
Rakow, Neal A., and Suslick, Kenneth S. (2000) A colormetric sensor array for odour visualization. Nature v406 p710-712.
Schmiedeskamp, Mia. Plenty to Sniff At. Scientific American March 2001 29-30. -- Good quick overview of electronic nose technogies. Updates Nagle et al..
Sherlock, D., Severin, E., Discrimination of Essential Oils. Cyrano Sciences, July 1999. www.cyranosciences.com
Thomas, J. Unkissable, New Scientist, (Oct 23, 1999)
Toko, K. Taste Sensor.
Wu, H., Siegel, M., Odor-Based Incontinence Sensor, 2000 IEEE, pp. 63-68.
Yip, D., Yu, W., Classification of Coffee using Artificial Neural Network, 1996 IEEE, pp.655-658.
john kinge of the olfaction research group at warwick
Gary Schwartz, U of Arizona. Something on smell, anxiety and fear.
Dumas, G. L'odeur de sainteré. Rev. de Paris, 14me Année 531-552 (1907)
Bjork & Richardson-Klavehn, 1989 - On the puzzling relationship between environmental context and human memory. In C. Izawa (ed) Current issues in cognitive processes p313-344, Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
J. Jellink, "Aroma-Chrology: A Status Review." Perfumer & Flavorist, vol 19. Sep/Oct 1994, p25-48.
Torii, S. 1987. The brain, the mind and fragrance. Fragrance Forum 11, 3. --
Lavendar is relaxing.
- laska & hudson 1992. ability to discriminate between related odor mixtures. chemical senses 17 403-415.
- Lawless 1989 exploration of fragrance categories and ambiguous odors using multideminensaioal scaling and cluster analysis. chemical sesnes 14 349-360. multidimensional scaling
/// The Flaneur / Pub. Date: 1994. ROTCH STACKS HT119.F55 1994 and i need the chapter "Digesting the Modern Diet" by Barry Smart, about gastroporn and the like.
Varney NR (1988) Prognostic significance of anosmia in patients with closed-head trauma. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 10: 250-254, 1988.- people who can't smell loose their jobs